Carl L. Johannessen, Professor Emeritus

102 Condon Hall
1251 University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1251

Office Phone: 541-346-4560
Home Phone: 541-342-2235
Fax: 541-346-2067

Photo of Carl Johannessen

May 2006

Curriculum Vita

NAME: Carl Lewis Johannessen

BIRTHPLACE: Santa Ana, California, July 28, 1924

MARITAL STATUS: Married; one child

PROFESSION: Professor Emeritus, Department of Geography, University of Oregon


B.A., University of California, Berkeley, 1950
Wildlife Conservation and Management

M.A., University of California, Berkeley, 1953

Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1959


Alpha Gamma Sigma

Honors in Wildlife Conservation and Management, University of California, 1950

Sigma Xi

Simon P. Guggenheim Foundation Fellow, 1965


Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies (Chairman-PCCLAS, 1966-67)

The Association of American Geographers (Life Member)

American Geographical Society

American Association for the Advancement of Science (Life Member)

Sigma Xi (Life Member; President University of Oregon Chapter, 1982-83)

Society for Economic Botany

Oregon Geographers

Association of Pacific Coast Geographers

Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers (Life Member; Chairman, 1983-85; Board of Directors 1981-85, 1972-76)


Biogeography, and in particular, the ways in which man has modified the distribution of plants and animals

The domestication process

Latin America as a regional specialty in the field of geography

The origins of high cultures in the pre-1500 A.D. New World

Development theory to minimize ecological damage and maximize utility of biotic germplasm


University of California, Berkeley, Teaching Assistant
Department of Zoology, 1951-52
Physical and Economic Geography. 1952-56

San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Instructor in Geography, Summer, 1956

University of California, Davis, California, Acting Instructor in Geography, January-June, 1959

University of Oregon, Professor of Geography, 1959 to present, Head of Department, 1978-1981


University of California, Berkeley, Field Assistant, June 12-September 12, 1949.

Research on the life history of the Jawbone Deer Herd in the central Sierra Nevada Mountains.

University of California, Berkeley, Field Technician, Department of Zoology, June-August, 1950.

Idaho State College, Pocatello, Idaho, Field Assistant in an ecological and radiation study of small mammals in the Arco Desert of Idaho. Research was supported by the Atomic Energy Commission. As a result of the interest in small mammals developed in this work, research for a Master's thesis on Microtus, the meadow mouse, was conducted in the Berkeley hills.

University of California, Berkeley, Field Technician, Department of Geography, Summer, 1954.

Conducted biogeographical investigations on the changes in the vegetation of British Honduras and Honduras. The changes in the savannas and the pinelands served as the basis for doctoral dissertation. Also, while traveling in these countries, an interest developed in the distribution of the Corozo palm, which resulted later in a research paper.

University of California, Berkeley, Field Technician, Department of Geography, November, 1955 to February, 1956.

Further biogeographical studies were conducted on a second trip to Honduras. The studies were centered on the extent of the changes in the savannas that had taken place since colonial times. Findings provided further substance for the doctoral dissertation.

Climatologist for Dr. Arnold Court, private research, July 1 to December 31, 1958.

Conducted hydrologic research and ecological field work on the Central Sierra Nevada Mountains for a commercial client. Study involved an analysis of the vegetation, fire history, effects of needle leaf miner and other insect pests, etc., that may have affected streamflow as measured by the U.S. Geological Survey.

University of Oregon, supported by Office of Naval Research grant held by Professor Samuel N. Dicken, July 14 to August, 1961.

Conducted a study of changes in the margins of marshes of several estuaries along the Oregon Coast. Findings were included in Professor Dicken's final report to the Office of Naval Research. Continued work in this area during winter and spring (1961-62) was supported by a grant from the Graduate School, University of Oregon.

University of California, Berkeley, Department of Geography, supported by Office of Naval Research, summer, 1962.

Conducted research in biogeography on the distribution and varietal differences of the pejibaye, or peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) in Costa Rica, July 15 to September 17, 1962.

University of Oregon, Institute of International Studies, supported by the

Carnegie Foundation, in Costa Rica, Central America, summer, 1963.

An interdisciplinary group of four graduate students and I studied the distribution, ecology, economics, and history of the cultivation of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes) and the manner in which it is used and selected for planting.

University of Oregon, Institute of International Studies, supported by the Carnegie Foundation, in Costa Rica, Central America, summer, 1964.

An interdisciplinary group of four graduate students and I studied methods of plant improvement in the following fields: geography, agricultural land use; anthropology, subsistence agriculture of an isolated Indian community; botany, laboratory and field experiments in the direct improvement of the pejibaye palm, and my research on selection as a process in plant domestication and the distribution of the commercial production of the pejibay palm.

Sabbatical leave from the University of Oregon, Research in Costa Rica, Central America, Guggenheim Fellowship, 1965-66.

Research was carried out on selection as a process in plant domestication. Three graduate students, supported by the Agricultural Development Council, were working with me.

University of Oregon, Institute of International Studies supported by the Ford Foundation for the month of July, 1966 in Guatemala.

An interdisciplinary group of four graduate students was introduced to the tropical environment in Guatemala on studies of agricultural activities and industrial distributions. Continuity in the direction of the students' researches was provided by another professor from Oregon.

Organization of Tropical Studies, University of Costa Rica, summer, 1967.

The Organization of Tropical Studies started a new teaching program for the field of geography this summer and invited me to assist for two weeks in the initiation of this program.

University of Oregon Graduate School Faculty Research grant for the summer,1967.

The research was continued on the plant domestication theme and was expanded to include several more species of plants. Many of these plants are being grown in the greenhouses and laboratories of the University of Oregon.

Organization of Tropical Studies, University of Costa Rica, supported by a National Science Foundation grant for Spring Term, 1970.

As director of a field course on tropical geography for 12 graduate students, two assistants, and two other professors from major universities in the United States, I took the group to Guatemala and Costa Rica for a series of research activities. These included topics on the full range of geographical interest from biogeography, urban, economic, land use to medical geography.

Research, Central America, personal financing, July and August, 1971.
The research pertained to solid and liquid waste disposal in the capital cities of Central America. Data was also collected on orchids and pejibayes in Costa Rica.

University of Oregon, Sabbatical leave, personal financing, 1972-73.
A field trip was taken to Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala in July and August, 1973 to study the domestication process as it relates to cucurbits (squashes).

Research in Mexico, personal financing, December-January. 1973-74.
The domestication process as it relates to the cucubits was again investigated among the Mexican peasant farmers.

Research in Guatemala, personal financing, July-August, 1975.
A search was made for the black-boned chicken that I discovered among the K'ekchí of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala in 1973. The discovery that BBCs were used in folk medicine oriented the study to this topic.

Research in Central America, National Geographic Foundation grant, July-September, 1976.
A search was made through Mexico, Guatemala, and British Honduras for folk medicinal uses of the black-boned, black-meated chicken, which are similar to uses in Chinese folk medicine with the same type chickens. Wayne and May Fogg are co-participants in the grant.

Research in Polynesia, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Costa Rica, and Guatemala, National Geographic Foundation grant, June-September, 1977.

A search to discover the extent of folk medicinal use of melanotic chickens (black-boned, black-skinned, black-meated chickens).

Research in Eugene, personal financing, September 1978-September, 1979.

Personal laboratory, garden, and greenhouse. Domestication activities include continued research on several species: 1)the tetraploiding ornamental Streptocarpus and food grain, foxtail millet, Setaria italica, 2) selection of improved varieties of edible Solanum muricatum, and 3) acclimatization of tropical maizes.

Head of Department of Geography, September 1978-August 1981.
On leave September 1979-August 1980.

Consulting for Bertleson Associates, Eugene Oregon, Spring 1979.
Biogeographical research was conducted on a potential subdivision site in Eugene. Consulting fee, $100/hour.

Sabbatical leave, University of Oregon, personal financing, June 1979-
September 1980.

Research and writing. Research: Plant domestication by studying tissue culture of filbert nuts, blueberries, and grapes. Production of cymbidium orchids in tissue culture. Climatic adaptation and testing of large-kernel maize from Peru.

Organization of American States (OAS) based in Washington, D.C., for work in
Brazil, October 1, 1979-January 3, 1980.

Contract research on feasibility study was made for the creation, establishment, and integration of centers for innovation and domestication (CID) in the arid and
semi-arid tropics of Northeast Brazil. Consulting fee, $5,666/month.

Research, personal financing, June-August, 1981.

1. Feasibility study was conducted for the establishment of a high-head-low
volume hydroelectric plant in the foothills of the Cascades of Oregon.

2. Plans are complete for a new tissue culture lab on my farm in Eugene, Oregon for research, domestication, and reproduction of crop plants.

3. A research report is complete on the weathering of ocean cliffs by a newly-discovered process called salt-expansion weathering. The applied aspects of this research should assist in the location of future buildings on the coasts, and in partially controlling erosion in front of existing buildings along hard-rock coasts.

Consulting for Consolidated Placer Dredging Inc., San Francisco, California, August-September, 1981.

Field studies of revegetation of gold dredge tailing on South Island, New Zealand. In a zone with 100 inches precipitation Monterey Pines can grow well on tailing if the tailing are flattened and fertilized with clovers or other legumes.

Research, personal financing, June-September, 1982.

1. Methods to maintain the potentials of the tropical biota for the future development of genetic resources were studied and reports written.

2. Assembly of grape, cherry, apple, and filbert varieties on my personal farm.

Construction, personal financing, Summer 1983 and 1984

Built laboratory and office space on my farm for the study of germ plasm reproduction in tissue culture. Continued process of developing a germ plasm repository for field grown apple, pear, grape, cherry, hazel, and blueberry varieties. Attempted to raise amaranth varieties from India

Research, National Science Foundation Funding, June-September, 1985

1. Field studies in India and bhutan on cultural practices of maize cultivation as test of hypothesis that Amerind techniques dispersed with the arrival of maize germ plasm. Study was continued in Sikkim, Darjeeling and Nepal in second summer.

2. Studied maize carvings in Hoysala Dynasty temples in Mysore area, South India. visited Mohenjodaro in Pakistan in search of American homologues to archaeological structures.

3. Attempted to view archaeological "peanut" in Hangzhou, China on return.

Research, personal financing and hemisabbatical leave, June-December 1987

Writing about previous two year's research.

Research in Bhutan, Nepal, Indian, Pakistan, and China supported by a National

Science Foundation grant, July 1, 1985 to June 30, 1987 for two summers.
Primitive and modern maize was collected and methods of seed selection and maintenance of varieties were determined by interviews with conservative farmers. We also discovered a way of effectively proving that maize had been used as the model for 12th-century bas-relief carvings in temples in South India. We found citations in Sanskrit literature to maize and other crops and began working with linguist scholars, but then learned that the data may not be valid. However, in the process we found a large number of other citations in several languages that do suggest ancientness of many American species of crop plants prior to 1492 A.D.

Research, Foundation Ancient Research and Mormon Studies Grant, University of Oregon Foundation and University of Oregon Research and Sponsored Programs grants and personal financing, July-September 1988.

1. Field Studies on maize representations in Mysore area in 11-13th century, Hoysala Dynasty temples. Discovered more anatomical similarities to maize ears.

2. Visited Archaeological Museum at Nagpur, India to study pot sherds with supposed maize motif on surface of pieces of pottery bowls.

3. Visited and lectured in Nepal for purpose of obtaining access to China rapidly for research on waxy, popcorns and other maize varieties in Yünnan, Szechwan, Zhejiang, and Beijing to deterine distributions of waxy maize and in Hangzhou to view archaeological peanut.

Research in India, Nepal and China was supported by the FARMS group at Brigham Young University and the University of Oregon. We discovered additional anatomical evidence of maize in Kesava temples of 12th and 13th century A.D. India near mysore. We also found some evidence suggesting widespread distribution of waxy gene throughout the "corn belt" in China. Twelve free lectures given on the trip.

Research, University of Oregon Foundation and University of Oregon Research and Sponsored Programs grants and personal financing

October-December, 1990.

1. Field studies on maize sculpture in 11-13th century A.D. Hoysala Dynasty temple in Karnataka, India. Testing the prediction that since maize must have been the model for the carvings and since maize is one of the most variable domesticated crops it is probably that more variations in maize anatomy should be discoverable.

2. Field studies on large, polygonal, pre-formed stone blocks assembled into temples and temple platforms assembled without mortar that show high correlations with Pruvian structures of the same technology.

3. Field studies on the use of black-boned, black-meated chickens (BB-BMC) used by curers to treat "disease" in southern India and Singapore-Malaysia.

November-December, 1992.

1. Field studies on maize in archaelogical sites in Xian, China area. Original leads provided by photographs from National Geographic Magazine proved to have been falsified by someone in China.

2. We discovered literary evidence of maize, peanut, and sunflowers.

3. Support provided by Robert Wilson; Northrup King, Brookhurst Milling Company through University of Oregon Foundation. Accompanied by Dr. Anne Z. Parker as a post-doctoral research assistant.

January-February, 1993.

1. Video taping of Hoysola temples and scholars of archaelogical, sculptural and epiraphic significance in Karnataka, India on evidence of maize in pre-Columbian times.

2. Accompanied by TV camera person, Bruce E. Johannessen and photographer Laura L. Johannessen on funds provided by Caterpillar Tractor Company, $1,000.


Summer, 1952 ONR through University of Dominican Republic and Haiti California, Berkeley $1,200
Summer, 1954 ONR through University of Dominican Republic California, Berkeley $1,200
Nov. 1955 - Feb. 1956 ONR through University of Dominican Republic California, Berkeley $1,200
Summer, 1962 ONR through University of Costa Rica California, Berkeley $1,200
Summer, 1963 Carnegie Corporation Costa Rica $10,940
June 1962 - June 1963 Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon $350
June 1963 - June 1964 Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon $1,200
Summer, 1964 Carnegie Corporation Costa Rica $10,381
June 1964 - June 1965 Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon $1,800
July, 1965 Faculty Award, University
of Oregon
Eugene, Oregon $575
June 1965 - Dec. 1965 Agricultural Development
Costa Rica $9,000
June 1965 - June 1966 Guggenheim Fellowship Foundation Costa Rica $7,000
March - July 1966 Agricultural Development Council Central America $6,000
July, 1966 I.I.S.O.A., University of Guatemala Oregon $1,000
Summer, 1967 Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon and Costa Rica $1,500
Summer, 1968 I.I.S.O.A., University of Oregon $12,468
Summer, 1976 National Geographic Foundation Mexico, Guatemala $5,835
Summer, 1977 National Geographic Foundation Polynesia, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru $7,326
Spring, 1980 Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon $100
Spring, 1981 Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene $100
Winter, 1982 Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene $100
Oct.,1983 - Aug. 1986 U.S. Department of Agriculture [for Brenner's M.A.] Pacific Northwest $3,500
July, 1985 - June, 1987 National Science Foundation Himalayas, S. India $66,386
Summer 1988 Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies India, Nepal, China $4,500
Summer 1988 University of Oregon Research and U.O. Foundation India, Nepal, China $1,350
Summer 1990 Texas A & M Eugene, Oregon $1,000
Fall 1990 University of Oregon Research and U.O. Foundation India $1,000
Fall 1992 Robert Wilson
Northrup Seed Co.

Brookhurst Milling Co.
Winter 1993 Caterpillar Tractor Co. $1,000


"Anti-Freezing Hoods for V-Notch Weirs," Journal of Forestry, Vol. 55(8), August, 1957.

"Man's Role in the Distribution of the Corozo Palm (Orbignya spp.)," Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, Vol. 19: 29-33, 1957.

"Higher Phosphate Values in Soils Under Trees than in Soils Under Grass," Ecology, Vol. 39(2): 374, April, 1958.

"Brush Tree Invasion of the Savannas of Honduras," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 48(3): 272, 1958. (Abstract)

"Sustained Swimming Speeds in Dolphins," Science, Vol. 132, (3439): 1550-1551, November, 1960 (with James Harder).

Introduction to Geography (Cultural Geography), Eugene, Oregon, Oregon State System of Higher Education, pp. 27, 1960. A General Extension Division correspondence course.

"Sustained Swimming Speeds in Dolphins (letter)," Science 133 (3456): 952-954 March, 1961 (with James Harder.

"Change in the Tidal Marshes of Tillamook Bay," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 52(3): 341, 1962 (Abstract).

Savannas of Interior Honduras, Ibero-Americana, No. 46 (University of California Press, 160 pp.), 1963.

"Smoking, Arteriosclerosis and Age," Science 139: 1096 and 8, 1963 (letter).

"Shoreline and Vegetation Changes of the Estuaries," Printed as Chapter 7 in the final report: Some Recent Physical Changes of the Oregon Coast, by Samuel N. Dicken. (Printed for Office of Naval Research, but no published in the usual sense).

"Marshes Prograding in Oregon: Aerial Photographs," Science, Vol. 146 (3651): 1575-1578, 1964.

"The Pejibaye Palm: A New Crop from an Old Plant," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 54(3): 424-425, 1964. (Abstract)

"Pejibaye Palm: Yields, Prices and Labor Costs," Economic Botany, Vol. 20(3) 1966.

"Pejibayes in Commercial Production," Turrialba, Vol. 16(2): 181-187, 1966.

"The Domestication Process in Trees Reproduced by Seed: The Pejibaye Palm in Costa Rica," The Geographical Review, Vol. LVI(3): 363-376, 1966.

"Pejibaye Palm: Physical and Chemical Analysis of the Fruit," Economic Botany, Vol. 21(4), 1967.

"The Domestication of Maize: Process or Event?" The Geographical Review, Vol. LX(3): 393-413, 1970 (with Michael R. Wilson and William A. Davenport).

"The Dispersal of Musas in Central America: The Domestication Process in Action," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 60(4): 689-699, 1970.

Geography of Domestication by Erich Isaac in Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 61(4): 808-9, 1971. (Book review).

"Sewage as a Pollutant in Central America," pp. 108-114 in Latin American Development Issues, Proceedings of the Conference of Latin American Geographers, Vol. 2, Syracuse, N.Y., CLAG Publication, Inc. 1-208, 1971.

"The Next Stages in Plant Domestication," Proceedings, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 2: 90-93, 1971.

"The Vegetation of the Willamette Valley as Modified by Humans," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 61(2):286-302, 1971 (with William A. Davenport, Steve McWilliams, and Artimus Millet).

"Squash Domestication," Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, pp. 131-133, 1974.

"Perceptions of the Possible in Plant Domestication," International Geographical Congress (23rd). Moscow, 74-77, 1976.

"Ancient Perceptions Unnecessarily Limit Plant Domestication," The Delphian Foundation Causepoint Papers.

"A Map Exercise and Cartobibliography for a Biogeography Course," Information Bulletin, Western Association of Map Libraries, Vol. 9(2), March, 1978: 136-40 (with Edward P. Thatcher).

Council of Latin American Geographers, "James J. Parsons, CLAG Award of Excellence" given at CLAG meetings in Sonoma, California, 1978. CLAG Newsletter.

"Parsons Receives CLAG Award," CLAG Communications Newsletter, No. 26: 9-10, 1978.

Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South America by Betty Meggers, Edward S. Ayensu, and W. Donald Duckworth. Smithsonian Institute Press in book review section of Annals of the Association of American Geographers, June, 1979.

Pre-feasibility Study to Establish Centers for Innovation and Domestication in the Semiarid Northeast of Brasil. Monograph published as No. 11, Centros de Domesticacao e Difusao de Especies, Projecto Bacia do Jotaba, Republica Federative do Brazil. Secretaria Geral da Organizacao Dos Estados Americanos; Ministerio do Interior, Superintendencia do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste, pp. 102. March, 1980.

"A Commentary," in Papers in Latin American Geography in Honor of Lucia C. Harrison. Special publication, Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, 1: 90-92, 1981.

Book Review: Manuel C. Andrade, Land and People of Northeast Brazil, translated by Dennis V. Johnson, Albuquerque, New Mexico Press (1980), Economic Geography, 1981.

"Domestication Process of Maize Continues in Guatemala," Economic Botany, 36(1): 84-99, 1982.

"Folk Medicine Uses of Melanotic Asiatic Chickens as Evidence of Early Diffusion to the New World," Social Science and Medicine, 150: 427-434, 1981.

"Melanotic Chicken Use and Chinese Traits in Guatemala," Revista de Historia de America, No. 93: 73-89, 1981.

"Presentation of Honors to James J. Parsons," Geographic Research on Latin America: Benchmark 1980, in Proceedings of the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Vol. 8: 4-5, 1981.

"Weathering of Ocean Cliffs by Salt Expansion in a Mid-Latitude Coastal Environment," Shore and Beach, January 1982: 25-34 (with Anke Neumann Wells and Joseph J. Feiereisen).

"Human Dispersal Agents," (Letter to the Editor), American Scientist, Vol. 70(2): 132, Mar.-Apr., 1982.

"Excerpts from a Pre-Feasibility Study to Establish Centers for Innovation and Domestication." (N.E. Brazil). Contemporary issues in Latin American Geography, CLAG Proceedings, 9: 115-123, 1983.

"Maximización de la Utilidad a Largo Plazo do la Vegetación del Sertao, Nordeste del Brasil." Sintesis Geográfica, Revista de la Escuela de Geografia - Universidad Central de Venezuela. VI(12): 36-43, 1983.

"Vegetation in the Sertâo: Potential Usefulness of the Genetic Resources," in 1984 Yearbook, Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers. Editor, Katherine M. Kvale, p. 68-75, Muncie, Indiana, Ball State University.

"Distribution and Medicinal Use of the Black-Boned and Black-Meated Chicken in Mexico, Guatemala, and South America." National Geographic Society Research Papers, 1976, Vol. 17: 493-495, 1984.

"Distribution and Use of the Black-Boned and Black-Meated Chicken in Mexico and Guatemala," Yearbook 1986, Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Vol. 12: 43-50. 1986.

"Domestication Process: An Hypothesis for its Origin," In Carl O. Sauer: A Tribute, Martin S. Kenzer, ed., Corvallis, OR: Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, 1987.

"The Tihosuco Inscription Retranslated as Spanish," Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers, 16:142-145, 1987 (with 7 others).

"Indian Maize in the Twelfth Century A.D.," Nature 232:587, 1988.

"Maize Ears Sculptured in 12th and 13th Century A.D. India as Indicators of Pre-Columbian Diffusion," Economic Botany 43)2, 1989, pp. 164-180. (with Anne Z. Parker).

"American Crop Plants in Asia Prior to European Contact," 1988 Yearbook, Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, 1989:14-19 (with Anne Z. Parker).

"Distribution of Pre-Columbian Maize and Modern Maize Names," in Ed. S.T. Wong, Person, Place and Thing, Geoscience and Man Series, Lousiana State University Press, 1992.


"Ancient Mayan and Subcontinent Indian Maize," a chapter in the proceedings of the First International Congress of Geography of the Americas, Feb. 22-27, Lima, 1988.

"Sauer's Belief in Pre-Columbian Maize in Europe Is Supported by 11th - 13th century A.D. Maize in India." Martin Kenzer, Ed., Festschrift for Carl O. Sauer. [1989].

"Maize Diffusion to India Before Columbus Came to America," Dale Croes, ed., Circum-Pacific Prehistory, University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA [1989].

"Chicken of Ritual," a chapter in a book on Chickens in the New World Before Columbus, George Carter, 1992.

"Des Épis de Maïs en Inde sur des Sculptures des XII-XIIIèmes Siècles?" in Kadath: Chroniques des Civilisations Disparues, Automne-Hiver 1997.

"Pre-Columbian American Sunflower and Maize Images in Indian Temples: Evidence of Contact between Civilizations in India and America," Davis Bitton, ed. Mormons, Scripture, and the Ancient World: Sutdies in Honor of John L. Sorenson, Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, Provo, Utah, 1998.


International Geographical Union, Montreal, August, 1972: "The Domestication Process as it Relates to Guatemalan Maize."

Pacific Coast Geographers Conference, June, 1973 in San Diego: "Domestication Theory and the Beginnings of Agriculture."

Pacific Coast Geographers Conference, June, 1974 in Corvallis: "Sea Cliff Retreat and Bench Formation by Salt Expansion Weathering," with Joe Feiereisen and Anke Neumann Wells.

Conference of Association of American Geographers, Milwaukee, 1975: "The Domestication Process and Archaeological Evidence."

Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, New York, 1976. "Use of the Black-boned Chicken and a Cluster of Other Chinese Traits in Guatemala."

Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Salt Lake City, 1977: "Melanotic Chicken Distribution and Medicinal Uses in Mexico and Guatemala."

Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, New Orleans, 1978: "South American Uses of Melanotic Chickens."

Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers (CLAG), Chico, CA, November 1980: "Animals, Folk Medicine and Diffusion."

Annual Meetings of the Pacific Coast Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Eugene, Oregon, June 1981. "Sea cliffs Retreat."

Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Buffalo, 1981: "The New Frontiers and the Older Bases."

Annual Meetings of the Association of American Geographers, San Antonio, 1982. "Hypothesis of Taoist--New World Pre-Columbian Contacts."

Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers (CLAG), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 1982: "Maximización de la utilidad a largo plazo do la Vegetación del Sertao."

Annual Meetings of the Association of American Geographers, Denver, 1983: "The beginnings of the domestication process."

Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Washington, D.C., 1984: "How sweet the maize stalk--and why."

Department of International Studies, University of Oregon, October 1986: "Explorations across oceans in the 9th century A.D. from India to Central and South America."

Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers (CLAG, Merida, Mexico, January 1987: "Maize in 12th Century Temples in southern India."

Annual Meetings of the Association of American Geographers, Baltimore, Maryland, March 1989: "Maize in India in the 11th to 13th centuries A.D."

Department of Geography, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, April 1989: "Maize in India in the 11th to 13th centuries A.D."

Annual Meeting of the Society of Ethnobiology, Riverside, California, April 1989: "Maize arrived in Asia before the 11th to 13th centuries A.D."

And many more meetings at AAG. etc. with presentations about maize in India in the last three years.


Introductory Geography: 1) Physical
2) Regional
3) Cultural

Political Geography

History of Geographic Thought


Advanced Climatology (graduate)

Regional Geography: Meso-America

Field Methods in Geography

Plant Geography


Advanced Plant Geography (graduate)

Seminar Domesticated Plants

Seminar Middle America

Summer Session Field Courses in Oregon and in Central America

Interdisciplinary Seminar on Economic Development in Middle America

Honors College course in General Social Science

Pollution of the Environment and Its Control

Seminar: Transoceanic Dispersal of Cultural Traits in Pre-Columbian Times

Seminar: Plant Domestication and the Archaeological Evidence


1. Consulting for local companies on biogeographical problems.

2. President and major stock holder from 1968 to 1978 of Neopropagations, Inc., a Eugene based tissue culture laboratory.

3. Consulting for an international organization to improve agriculture, forestry, livestock raising and energy production (from the biomass).

4. Review for publishers of book manuscripts submitted to them by geographers.

© 2006. Questions regarding this website e-mail: